Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2014/2015, u Rwanda rwari rubereyemo amahanga umwenda ungana na Miliyoni 1,851.54 z’amadolari ya Amerika, ukaba wariyongereyeho 10.3% ugereranyije n’uwo rwari rufite mu mpera za 2013/2014 (Miliyoni 1,679.24 USD).

 

By Ukuli Dido | Views : 24381 | Kuya 01-13-2016 07:57



Uyu mwenda w’u Rwanda rubereyemo amahanga ugabanyijemo ibice bitatu by’ingenzi: imyenda y’ibigo by’imari mpuzamahanga (Multilateral institutions), Ibihugu (Bilateral partners) n’imyenda ya Euro bonds. Imyenda y’ibigo by’imari mpuzamahanga niyo myinshi (63.9%), hagakurikiraho Euro bonds (21.6%), hagaheruka imyenda y’ibihugu (14.5%).

Mu myenda y’ibigo by’imari mpuzamahanga, Ibiza ku isonga ni IDA (International Development Association) ifite 37.2%, AFDB (African Development Bank) ifite 14.1% na IFAD (International Fund for Agriculture Development) ifite 6.0%. Mu bihugu, iby’ingenzi biturukamo inguzanyo zihabwa u Rwanda muri iki gihe hari Ubushinwa (China), Ubuhindi (India), Kuwait na Saudi Arabia.

U Rwanda rugerageza kwishyura neza, ku buryo muri 2014/2015, kwishyura iyi myenda byiyongereyeho 30.3% ugereranyije na 2013/2014. Iyi myenda imaze kwerekanwa ntibarirwamo imyenda Leta y’u Rwanda yishingiye y’abikorera ku giti cyabo.

Ubukungu bwarazamutse

Umwaka w’ingengo y’imari mu bihugu bigize akarere k’iburasirazuba bw’Afurika East African Community (EAC), ari naho u Rwanda ruherereye,  utangirana na Nyakanga ukarangirana na Kamena y’umwaka ukurikiraho. Ni ukuvuga ko umwaka wa 2014/2015 watangiye tariki 01/07/2014 ukarangira tariki 30/06/2015. Isesengura ry’izamuka ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda na ryo riragendera kuri icyo gihe, hagaragazwe uko ubukungu bwazamutse 2014/2015 ugereranyije n’umwaka 2013/2014.

Mu kureba uko ubukungu bwazamutse, harifashishwa ibipimo by’ingenzi bikurikira:

1.Izamuka ry’umusaruro w’u Rwanda (GDP):

Umusaruro w’u Rwanda wa 2014/2015 wazamutseho 7.2% ugereranyije na 5.1% wazamutseho muri 2013/2014. Hifashishijwe iki gipimo bigaragara ko habayeho umuvuduko ugaragara mu iterambere muri rusange.Iki kikaba ari igipimo cyigaragaza ubukungu muri rusange kuko kigaragaza umusaruro wose w’imbere mu gihugu mu bikorwa byose (products and services) mu gihe cy’umwaka. Uyu muvuduko ukaba uri hejuru cyane ugereranyije n’uwisi yose, kuko ubukungu bw’isi muri rusange bwazamutseho 3.3% muri Nyakanga 2015 nk’uko bigaragazwa na raporo y’Ikigega cy’Imari cy’Isi (IMF). Uwo musaruro ntabwo wakoreshejwe imbere mu gihugu wose, ahubwo igice kimwe cyawo cyagurishijwe mu mahanga kugira ngo kinjirize amadovize (amafaranga y’amahanga) u Rwanda kuko na rwo ruyakenera mu gutumiza ibyo rukeneye mu mahanga.

Uruhare rw’ibikorwa mu iterambere ry’ubukungu

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwazamutse ku gipimo cya 7.2% mu mwaka wa 2014/2015. Uko kuzamuka ahanini kwaturutse ku iyongerwa rya za serivisi z’ingenzi (Services sector) zingana na 49% ry’ubukungu bwose, zazamutseho 8%. Serivisi zikurikiwe n’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi (Agriculture sector) bungana na 30% by’ubukungu bwose, bukaba bwarazamutseho 5.0%, naho inganda zo zikaba zarazamutseho 7.0%. Ikindi cy’ingenzi cyashigikiye iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’u Rwanda ni amabanki yashyigikiye abikorera ku giti cyabo mu ishoramari babaha inguzanyo, ziyongereyeho 27.5% ugereranyije n’umwaka wa 2013/2014.

2.ubuhahirane n'amahanga :

Iyo ibyoherejwe mu mahanga biruta ibyatumijwe mu mahanga,ubukungu buba bwifashe neza ku birebana n’ubuhahirane,Iyo ibyatumijwe mu mahanga biruta ibyoherejweyo, harimo igihombo ku gihugu kingana n’icyo kinyuranyo, ni nk’aho ari umwenda igihugu kiba gifitiye amahanga.

Mu rwego rw’ubuhahirane n’amahanga, u Rwanda rwagaragaje igihombo kingana na Miliyoni 823.43 z’amadorali y’Amerika (USD) muri 2014/2015 naho muri 2013/2014 cyanganaga na Miliyoni 522.83 USD, ni ukuvuga ko igihombo kiyongereyeho 57.5%.

Nubwo bigaragara ko igihombo cyiyongereye cyane mu gaciro, nyamara ingano y’ibyoherejwe mu mahanga yo yariyongereye, ahubwo ibyatumijweyo biragabanuka. Mu rwego rw’ubucuruzi gusa, ibyoherejwe mu mahanga byavuye ku gaciro ka Miliyoni 707.32 USD bigera ku gaciro ka Miliyoni 709.32 USD, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 0.3%, naho ibyatumijwe mu mahanga byavuye kuri Miliyoni 1,920.25 USD bigera kuri Miliyoni 1,916.71 USD, ni ukuvuga ko byagabanutseho 0.2% muri 2014/2015 ugereranyije na 2013/2014.

3.Izamuka rusange ry’ibiciro ku masoko (Inflation) n’ihindagurika ry’agaciro k’ifaranga ry’ u Rwanda :

Ibiciro muri rusange ku masoko yo mu Rwanda ntabwo byiyongereye bigaragara kuko igipimo cyabyo kigaragaza ko byazamutseho 1.3% muri 2014/2015 ugereranyije n’izamuka ryabyo rya 2013/2014 ryari kuri 3.4% nk’uko raporo ya BNR 2014/2015 ibigaragaza. Ibiciro bisa nk’ibitarahindaguritse kuko umusaruro wagenze neza, kandi ibiciro by’ibikomoka kuri peteroli biragwa, bityo n’ibiciro by’ibitumizwa hanze y’igihugu bisa nk’ibiguma hamwe muri rusange.

Nubwo ibikomoka kuri peteroli byaguye, igiciro cyo gutwara abantu n’ibintu, ari nacyo kigira uruhare cyane mu ihindagurika ry’ibindi biciro, cyo nticyahindutse, bituma rero n’ibindi bidahindagurika. U Rwanda rukaba ruhagaze neza kuko inflation mu bihugu biri munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara ari 6%.

Ikindi cyatumye ibiciro bitiyongera ni ugucunga neza ifaranga ry’u Rwanda byagaragajwe na Banki Nkuru, byatumye agaciro karyo kadatakara ugereranyije n’amadovize ariyo mafaranga y’amahanga, cyane cyane Idorali ry’Abanyamerika, ifaranga ry’u Rwanda rigenderaho.

Inyungu mu ma banki ntizazamutse haba izo amabanki asaba abazisaba inguzanyo haba no kuzo banki zigenera abazizigamamo. Bikaba byaratewe n’uko Banki Nkuru y’igihugu nayo yagumishijeho inyungu isaba amabanki y’ubucuruzi.

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu yakajije umurego mu gukurikirana imikorere ya za Forex Bureau, bityo gushaka gukirira mu guca abandi mu rihumye (Speculations) biragabanuka cyane bituma agaciro k’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda ugereranyije n’idorali ry’Abanyamerika, ndetse n’andi madovize akoreshwa cyane mu Rwanda nk’Ipawundi ry’Abongereza n’Iyero ry’Abanyaburayi, bidahindagurika cyane.

Ifaranga ry’u Rwanda rikaba ryarataye agaciro ho 5.4% ugereranyije n’Idorali ry’Abanyamerika muri 2014/2015, na ho muri 2013/2014 rikaba ryari ryagataye ku ijanisha rya 6.2%.

Ibi bipimo byifashishijwe biboneka muri raporo ya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda ya 2014/2015 (Nyakanga 2014-Kamena 2015).



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