Mu mwaka wa 2014/2015 Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda (BNR) ifatanyije n’izindi nzego bireba cyane cyane amabanki, hakomeje kubungwabungwa ihamahamwe (stability) ry’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda, ku buryo ryataye agaciro kuri  5.4% urigereranyije n’ idorali ry’Abanyamerika.

 

By Ukuli Dido | Views : 13797 | Kuya 01-13-2016 07:47



Kuba ifaranga ry’u Rwanda ritarataye agaciro cyane byaturutse ku mpamvu zingenzi  zikurikira:

Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu yakomeje gucungira hafi isoko ry’ivunja:

Ku birebana n’ivunja ry’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda mu mafaranga y’amahanga, Leta yagumishijeho politiki y’ivunja ishingiye ku baguzi hamwe n’abagurisha (flexible exchange rate) ariko nanone igakurikirana imikorere y’isoko ry’ivunjisha imbere mu gihugu kugirango nibijya guta umurongo mwiza, bicyamurirwe igihe. Byagiye bigaragara ko abakora umurimo wo kuvunja hari ubwo bimana amadovize babeshya ko yabuze kugirango burize ibiciro byayo. Aho rero Banki Nkuru irabikurikirana ikabigarurira hafi. Iyo Banki nkuru isanze koko nta madovize ahagije ari ku isoko, niho ifata icyemezo cyo kuyaha amabanki y’ubucuruzi nayo ikayageza muri za forex bureaus. Ku bw’ibyo rero ifaranga ry’u Rwanda ryataye agaciro ho 5.4% gusa urigereranyije n’idorali ry’Amerika muri uyu mwaka wa 2014/2015, nyamara ariko uku guta agaciro byari 6.2% muri 2013/2014. Iyi mpinduka rero yabaye ingaruka nziza kuri politiki y’ifaranga ry’u Rwanda.

Inyungu ku nguzanyo z’amabanki no ku masoko y’imari ntizongerewe

Inyungu z’amabanki ntizongerewe haba ku nguzanyo atanga cyangwa se inguzanyo asaba. Inyungu amabanki y’ubucuruzi yasabye ku myenda yatanze yabaye ku mpuzandengo ya 17.3%, naho inyungu amabanki yahaye abayazigamamo yari ku mpuzandengo ya 8.8%. Inyungu hagati y’amabanki ubwayo yari 4.03%. Inguzanyo zitizewe kwishyurwa neza nazo zaragabanutse. Inguzanyo ku bikorera zikaba zariyongereyeho 27.5% muri uyu mwaka wa 2014/2015, hafi inshuro ebyiri za 2013/2014 kuko ho inyongera yari 14.1%.

Ubwizigamire mu mabanki bwiyongereyeho 17.1% muri 2014/2015, ariko uko kwiyongera kuri hasi y’ukwagaragaye muri 2013/2014 (30.6%).

Ku masoko y’imari, imigabane n’impapuro z’agaciro mpamyamyenda byakomeje kugaragara nk’ibyavunjwa mu makashi  ku buryo bworoshye (liquid) kandi inyungu zabyo nazo ntizahindaguritse ugereranyije n’umwaka wa 2013/2014. Agaciro k’imigabane ku masosiyeti ari ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane RSE (Rwanda Stock Exchange) nako ntikazamutse ahubwo kagiye kagabanuka cyane cyane mu mezi ya nyuma y’umwaka 2014/2015.  Inyungu nayo yaragabanutse, urugero ni inyungu ku mpapuro z’agaciro mpamyamwenda T-Bills zagabanutseho 4.05%. Ibi bikaba byaratewe n’uko mu mabanki hakomeje kubonekamo amafaranga akenewe, n’inguzanyo ziyongereye.

Ishoramari mu mpapuro z’agaciro mpamyamwenda za Leta (T-Bond) ryakozwe n’amabanki  ryiyongereyeho 192.2% , ryavuye kuri Miliyari 11.5 FRW muri Kamena 2014 rigera kuri Miliyari 33.6 FRW muri Kamena 2015. Ku bandi bashoramari batari amabanki, ishoramari muri T-Bond ryiyongereyeho 149.8%, ryavuye kuri Miliyari 21.9 FRW muri 2013/2014 rigera kuri Miliyari 54.9 FRW muri 2014/2015.

Amafaranga yariyongereye mu bayakoresha

Nk’uko tubikesha raporo ya BNR Nyakanga 2014-Kamena 2015, amafaranga y’u Rwanda muri rusange yiyongereyeho 16.7% kugeza Kamena 2015, cyakora muri 2014 niho yiyongereye cyane kuko byari 27.2% kugeza muri Kamena z’uwo mwaka. Amafaranga akaba yariyongereye cyane kubera impapuro z’agaciro mpamyamyenda zashyizwe ku masoko na Leta y’u Rwanda hamwe n’inguzanyo ku bikorerza ku giti cyabo nkuko twabibonye yiyongereye cyane (27.5%). Mu ma banki hitabiriwe kubitsa mu ma banki y’imbere mu gihugu, aho byiyongereyeho 68.7%. Habayeho politiki yo gushishikariza abantu gukoresha ubwizigamire mu ma banki ikaba yaranitabiriwe cyane.

Muri 2014/2015, imyenda mishya yatanzwe na za banki yageze kuri Miliyari 688.3 FRW nyamara muri 2013/2014 yari Miliyari 577.7 FRW, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 19.1%, bivuze ko banki zari zifite kashi yo kuguriza byaturutse ku micungire myiza zagiriwemo inama nyinshi zikanabiyoborwamo na Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu.

Mu nzego z’abikorera ku giti cyabo, uruhare runini rw’imyenda rwahawe urwego rw’ubucuruzi hamwe na za resitora n’amahoteri (41.5%), bikaba byariyongereyeho 18.5% ugereranyije n’umwaka wa 2013/2014. Urwego rw’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro rwatangiye kugezwaho inguzanyo z’amabanki muri 2013/2014, inguzanyo rwahawe yavuye kuri Miliyoni 200 FRW ugezwa kuri Miliyoni 600 FRW, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 200%.

Ubuhinzi n’ubworozi nubwo inguzanyo zaho zazamutseho 50.6%, uruhare rwabyo mu nguzanyo z’amabanki rwakomeje kuba hasi cyane (1.8%) muri 2014/2015, cyakora rwazamutseho gato kuko muri 2013/2014 rwari 1.4%.

Hanze y’amabanki y’ubucuruzi, uko ifaranga ryahererekanyijwe mu barikoresha byiyongereyeho 13.0% muri 2014/2015, naho muri 2013/2014 ubwiyongere bwari 2.7%. Ibi byatewe n’iterambere mu bikorwa by’ubukungu mu nzego zose hamwe na kampanye ya kawa yashowemo Miliyari 17.6 FRW muri 2014/2015.

Umutungo bwite wa za banki wavuye kuri Miliyari 1,767.6 FRW ugera kuri Miliyari 2,000 muri Kamena 2015, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 13.15%. Amafaranga banki zabikiye abakiriya (Deposits) yavuye kuri 1,230.8 FRW agera kuri 1,366.5 FRW, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 11.3%. Inguzanyo (Loans) zatanzwe n’amabanki zavuye kuri Miliyari 940.1 FRW muri Kamena 2013/2014 zigera kuri Miliyari 1,149.9 FRW muri Kamena 2015, ni ukuvuga inyongera ya 22.32%. Muri Kamena 2015, ni ukuvuga impera z’umwaka w’ingengo y’imari 2014/2015, banki zose zagaragaje inyungu (havuyemo imisoro) ingana na Miliyari 23.6 FRW, inyongera ya 36.42% ugereranyije n’inyungu ya Miliyari 17.3 FRW zungutse muri 2013/2014. Iyi mibare turayikesha BNR Annual Report July 2014-June 2015.

Ibiciro ku masoko ntibyiyongereye cyane

BNR igaragaza muri raporo yayo ya 2014/2015 ko ibiciro by’ibiribwa bidahunikwa byavuye ku bwiyongere bwa 7.0% muri 2013/2014 bikagera kuri -3% muri 2014/2015. Ni ukuvuga ko ibiciro byagabanutse aho kwiyongera. Ibi byanatumye uko kwiyongera ku biribwa byose kuva kuri 4.7% kugera kuri 0.4% muri uyu mwaka ushize. Mu birebana n’ingufu (Energy), ibiciro byiyongereye kuva kuri 3.1% kugera kuri 0.4% naho mu bwikoreze (Transport), bwavuye kuri 0.5% bugera kuri -2.1%. Ku bicuruzwa bikomoka mu Rwanda muri rusange, habayeho imanuka ry’ibiciro kuva kuri 3.9% muri 2013/2014 rigera kuri 1.4% muri 2014/2015, naho ku bicuruzwa byatumijwe mu mahanga, byavuye kuri 1.7% bigera kuri 1.1%. Muri rusange izamuka ry’ibiciro ryabaye 1.3% naho muri 2013/2014 ryari kuri 3.4%.

   



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